Application types of stem cells:
The protocols developed so far are too many, but almost all are applied in the same way: In Situ (in the damaged tissue), Intravenous, intrathecal (spinal cord) and even orally.
Sources of stem cells:
Adipose tissue: the tissue most despised and hated by many, but with a large number of mesenchymal cells, found in many parts of the body but concentrating is the abdominal, back and gluteal regions among others. It should make a slight removal thereof in order to "purify" and find those mesencquimales cells.
Bone marrow: is the tissue found inside all bones of the body, it hematopoietic stem cells (mesenchymal) are concentrated. It is extracted by a direct puncture, preferably in the iliac crest (a part of the hip bone) or the xiphoid (sternum). This extraction technique requires closed and local anesthesia, it can be painful.
Mobilization in peripheral blood: in this case, the multiplication is caused in excess of stem cells from bone marrow, by injections factors or growth hormone. This over-division causes for lack of physical space in the bone marrow stem cells to the blood, where they are collected by apheresis. This procedure consists of connecting the patient intravenously to a machine which separates the blood components. Side effects are headache, bone pain and muscle cramps.
Human placenta and umbilical cord: the extraction of stem cells is performed at the time of birth when the baby is already born and is separated from the umbilical cord. the cord and placenta and then sterilized with gamma rays and cryopreserved at extreme sub-zero temperatures to be segmented and used in subcutaneous and intramuscular applications sick patients are isolated. So far, he had treated the umbilical cord as a residue and wasted along with the placenta.